Tonne Kilometre (TKM)
Tonne Kilometre (TKM) is a measure of freight carried by a mode of transport, like roads, railways, airways or waterways. It is calculated as:
TKM = TLC x TDC
TLC is Total Load Carried measured in terms of tonnes and,
TDC is the Total Distance Covered measured in kilometres
In India, freight movement by the road transport sector is the largest, followed by railways. The Mid-Term Appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) notes the steady loss of freight traffic carried by railways to roads. While the share of road transport sector vis-a-vis that of railways was 38:62 in 1990-91, in 2006-07, this share changed to 61: 39. In terms of BTKMs, freight movement by roads has increased by 55 per cent from 494.0 BTKMs during 2000-01 to 766.2 BTKMs in 2006-07 (the latest year for which estimated figures for BTKMs are available with Ministry of Road Transport & Highways). The Working Group on Road Transport for the Eleventh Five Year Plan had projected BTKMs performed by roads. Assuming four variants of GDP growth rates for the Eleventh Five Year Plan at 7 per cent, 8 per cent, 8.5 per cent and 9 per cent, the Working Group had projected BTKMs by roads to increase further to 1,113; 1,171; 1,200 and 1,231, respectively, by 2011-12.
- Road Transport Year Book http://www.morth.nic.in/writereaddata/sublink2images/RoadTransport2006_07_Book292768426.pdf
- Working Group Report on Road Transport for the Eleventh Five Year Plan http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp11/wg11_roadtpt.pdf
- Indian Railways Year Book http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/railwayboard/uploads/directorate/stat_econ/Stat_0910/Year%20Book%202009-10-Sml_size_English.pdf
- Working Group Report on Shipping and Inland Water Transport for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp11/wg11_ship.pdf
- Mid-Term Appraisal : Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/plans/mta/11th_mta/chapterwise/chap16_transpost.pdf
- Total Transport System Study conducted by RITES for Planning Commission.