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Passenger Kilometre (PKM)

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Passenger Kilometre (PKM) is a measure of movement of passengers by a mode of transport, like roads, railways, airways or waterways. It is calculated as:



TPC is Total Passengers Carried measured in terms of number of passengers and,

TDC is the Total Distance Covered measured in kilometres

Out of the various modes available in India, passenger movement by road transport is the highest, followed by railways. Estimates indicate that the share of road transport sector in passenger movement vis-a-vis railways has increased manifold: from 15.4 per cent in 1950-51 to 87.4 per cent in 2005-06 (the latest year for which estimates are available with Ministry of Road Transport & Highways). In terms of BPKMs, passenger movement by roads more than doubled from 2,075.5 BPKMs in 2000-01 to 4,251.7 BPKMs in 2005-06. The Working Group on Road Transport for the Eleventh Five Year Plan had projected BPKMs performed by roads. Assuming four variants of GDP growth rates for the Eleventh Five Year Plan at 7 per cent, 8 per cent, 8.5 per cent and 9 per cent, the Working Group had projected BPKMs by roads to increase further to 9,892; 10,872; 11,390 and 11,927, respectively, by 2011-12.


  1. Road Transport Year Book
  2. Working Group Report on Road Transport for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)
  3. Indian Railways Year Book
  4. Mid-term Appraisal: Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)

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